Peru is a republic where the president is
head of state and government as well as
commander-in-chief. Congress has the primary
responsibility for legislative work. The political
landscape is in constant turmoil with many new parties
Under the authoritarian rule of Alberto Fujimori in
the 1990s, the previous constitution was put into play.
A new constitution was added that gave the president an
even stronger position than before. Among other things,
the President was given more opportunities to stop
legislative proposals and to dissolve Parliament. After
the fall of Fujimori in 2000, however, a rule was added
that prevents the incumbent president from being
Total population and chart of Peru for years of 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023 and 2024. Also covers population density, birth rate, death rate and population growth rates.
The executive power lies with the president who leads
the government, the Council of Ministers. One of the
ministers is entitled "Chairman of the Council of
Ministers" and is sometimes called Prime Minister or
Chief Minister, but it is the President who controls the
work and is the head of government. The president is
also a military commander and appoints the highest
commanders in the field of defense and order.
General elections for the presidential post are held
every five years. If no one gets at least half of the
votes in the first round, a second round is held between
the two candidates who received the most votes. Thus, a
president must not be re-elected directly; there must be
at least one term in between. Two Vice Presidents are
elected together with the President.
The legislative Parliament, the Congress,
consists of a chamber of 130 members. However, the
President has great influence over the legislative work.
He or she examines legislative proposals from
Parliament, can submit legislative proposals himself and
can also pass laws if Parliament so requests.
Members of Congress are elected in general and
proportional elections, at the same time as the first
round of the presidential election, and the term of
office is five years. To get into Congress, a party must
get at least five percent of the vote. Voting duty
prevails for ages 18-70.
Peru is divided into 24 regions or departments, as
well as two provinces with special status: Lima and
Callao. The regions consist of 196 provinces, which in
turn are divided into nearly 1,900 districts.
Under Fujimori's authoritarian rule in the 1990s, the
political landscape changed. The old parties had lost
much of their reputation, and many voters turned instead
to independent politicians, who often emphasized local
issues and criticized major successes in the provincial
elections. New parties and partial alliances also
emerged, often built around a single person. The party
landscape has continued to be constantly changing, but
in the recent election held in 2020 several slightly
older parties emerged again, possibly in response to the
turbulence that has been (see Current policy).
At the same time, a party that had its own majority
before the election collapsed:
popular power (Fuerza Popular, FP).
FP was formed under a different name ahead of the 2011
election by supporters of Alberto Fujimori, the former
president who, despite being imprisoned in 2009, still
has supporters among the Peruvians. The supporters form
a right-wing political movement known as Fujimorism, and
its main body is led by Fujimori's daughter Keiko
Fujimori. She was close to victory in the 2011 and 2016
presidential elections, but was defeated both times by
barely a margin. FP became the next largest party in
Congress in 2011 and by far the largest in 2016. After
major political contradictions and corruption charges
against Keiko Fujimori, FP then lost five-sixths of its
previous mandate (see Current Policy).
No party gained a dominant position in the 2020
election, but the largest was the Popular Action
(Acción Popular, AP), formed in 1956 by
Fernando Belaúnde, who later became president in two
rounds (see Modern History). The AP is considered a
The second largest in 2020 was the Progress
Alliance (Alianza para el Progreso, APP),
a right-wing party that was formed in 2001 and doubled
its mandate compared to the previous elections.
It was followed by Union for Peru (Unión
por el Perú, UP), founded by former UN
chief Javier Pérez de Cuellar in 1994. UP was previously
seen as a center-left party but has become increasingly
An unexpected rocket in the 2020 election was the
evangelical Peruvian agricultural front
(Frente Popular Agrícola del Perú, Frepap),
a Christian fundamentalist party founded in 1989 and
believed to have been favored by the collapse of the FP.
A series of left-wing parties dissatisfied with
then-President Ollanta Humala's policies in 2013 formed
the Alliance Breda Front (Frente Amplio,
FA), which became second largest in
parliament in 2016 but backed in 2020.
In third place in 2016 came a party which then called
itself Peruvians for change (Peruanos
Por el Kambio, PPK), who by the
spelling "kambio" instead of cambio got the
same initials as the party's presidential candidate
Pedro Pablo Kuczynski. He won the election but was
forced to resign in 2018 and the following year the
One of the traditional parties that survived is the
Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista
Peruano, PAP / Apra), which was long
led by Alan García Pérez (President 1985–1990 and
2006–11). The party, which is the country's oldest, has
had a changing ideological profile but is now almost
social democratic. The party became the second largest
in the 2006 election, but then lost ground and became
without a mandate in 2020.
Regional and municipal elections are held
The elections result in severe setbacks for established political parties.
Instead, local and regional movements are progressing strongly. According to
preliminary results, local movements in 18 of 25 regions won. The result shows
that the field is open to the presidential and parliamentary elections in April
Violent conflict over mineral rights
Five people are reported to have been killed when police try to disperse
around 7,000 miners blocked by the Pan-American highway, in the department of
Arequipa in the south. The miners are protesting against a government decision
to limit the right to wash gold. The government states as a reason that it wants
to protect the environment, collect taxes from informal extraction of minerals,
and curb social problems such as child labor, human trafficking and
prostitution. The demonstrators in Arequipa distrust the government and fear
that the purpose is to give big companies exclusive rights to the mineral
resources. It is estimated that there are about 300,000 miners in Peru who work
without formal employment with small-scale mining. Later in the month, the main
road is again occupied by protesters protesting against the development of a
large copper mine, Tía María, in Arequipa.
Many killed by the guerrillas
It is stated that at least 31 soldiers, six police officers and about ten
civilians have been killed in 6-7 different ambushes by the leftist guerrilla
Sendero Luminoso since December 2006.
Renovation in the government
As a result of the unrest in the spring, Chief Minister Yehude Simon resigns.
President García appoints Javier Velásquez Quesquen from Apra as new prime
minister. Several other ministers are also being replaced.
Fujimori is sentenced to prison
The legal proceedings against former President Alberto Fujimori, initiated in
2007, will end. He is sentenced to 25 years in prison for his responsibility for
the security service's "death patrol" Grupo Colina murdered 25 civilians in 1991
and 1992. In three other parallel trials against him, he is sentenced to
multi-year sentences for abuse of power, illegal interception, bribery and
corruption when he had gave his security manager, Vladimiro Montesinos, a
million from the Treasury.
New ground protests are becoming violent
New unrest is emerging in the Amazon. This time, the protests apply new laws
that the Indians see as a threat to the rainforest. The unrest culminates when
at least 30 Native Americans and 22 policemen are killed as police and military
strike down protests in Baguas province in the north. Indians use spears and
machetes and take police as hostages, after which military is sent in and,
according to Indian leaders, employ a massacre of protesters. The conflict ends
with Parliament repealing the disputed laws.