Australia is a federal state consisting of
six states with large internal autonomy and three
territories. Federally, the legislative power lies with
a parliament with two chambers. Two party groups, the
Labor Party and a bourgeois coalition between the
Liberal Party and the National Party, have changed
power. The British monarch is head of state but is
represented in Australia by a general governor.
According to the 1901 Constitution, Australia is a
federal state consisting of six states with significant
autonomy: Western Australia (Western Australia), South
Australia (South Australia), Queensland, New South Wales
(NSW), Victoria and Tasmania. In addition, there are
three territories: the Northern Territory, the
Australian Capital Territory (ACT) metropolitan area and
the Jervis Bay Territory, which was previously part of
the ACT. All territories were previously ruled directly
by the federal government, but the first two have since
1978 gradually increased self-government similar to the
federal states. The Northern Territory rejected a full
state status in a 1998 referendum.
Total population and chart of Australia for years of 2020, 2021, 2022, 2023 and 2024. Also covers population density, birth rate, death rate and population growth rates.
The British monarch is formally the head of state but
is represented by a limited governor general. The
Governor-General formally appoints the Prime Minister
and also has the formal right to dismiss him / her,
which has only happened once in modern times.
There is considerable support among the population
for the establishment of the republic, but when a
referendum on this was held in 1999, the monarchists
barely won. The Labor government, which took office in
2007, had the abolition of the monarchy on its agenda,
while the bourgeois coalition, which came to power after
the 2013 parliamentary elections, wanted to retain the
monarchy. Few, however, believe that any change will
happen as long as Queen Elizabeth II is head of state.
The executive power is exercised by the government,
led by the prime minister. This elects other members of
the government from among the members of the federal
parliament and is also responsible to the parliament.
General voting rights for white women and men have
existed since 1902, but only after a 1967 referendum did
Aborigines get the right to apply for Australian
citizenship and vote. Duty to vote prevails and the
voice teacher gives a fine.
The legislative power is constituted at the federal
level by a two-chamber parliament consisting of the
House of Representatives
and the Senate. The number of members
in the House of Representatives is 150. They are elected
for a maximum term of three years through majority
elections in one-man constituencies. The Senate has 76
members, twelve senators from each state and two from
each of the Northern Territory and ACT respectively.
This means that the sparsely populated states are
over-represented. The senators are elected in
proportional elections for six years (the senators from
the territories sit for three years). Half of the
senators are replaced in connection with each election
to the House of Representatives. In the 2016 election,
however, the entire Senate was replaced, because then,
for the first time since 1987, the Governor-General had
dissolved both parliament's chambers in accordance with
a special constitutional clause.
The legislative work is mainly done by the House of
Representatives, but the Senate has far-reaching powers
to stop new laws.
The states have their own governors, who represent
the monarch, their own constitutions, parliaments and
governments. Most states have two-chamber parliaments
and the terms of office vary from three to four years.
The states are allowed to legislate on all matters
except those which are solely federal affairs (for
example, foreign and defense policy). However, federal
law applies over state law.
In recent years, increasing power has been
transferred from the Lšnder to the central government,
which has, among other things, a great influence on
fiscal policy. At the same time, the need has increased
due to cooperation and coordination between the states
and territories, as well as between the central
government and the states, not least about the taxes.
The justice system is similar to the British one. At
the federal level, there are mainly three courts: The
Supreme Court (Supreme Court) is the highest legal body
to which legal cases from both state and federal courts
can be appealed. The Supreme Court is the only body of
constitutional and international law; The Federal Court
was created to relieve the Supreme Court, including in
labor and tax law; the Family Court judges in cases
involving family and inheritance law. Subordinate to
these are the courts of the states and territories.
Domestic politics has long been dominated by two
power blocks: the Labor Party
(Australian Labor Party, ALP) and the bourgeois
coalition between the Liberal Party
(Liberal Party, LP) and the National Party
(National Party, NP). After six years with the
ALP in power, the bourgeois coalition returned to office
after the 2013 parliamentary elections. The bourgeois
bloc retained power even after the 2016 and 2019
elections (see Current Policy).
Despite the name, LP is conservatively and
economically neoliberal. Queensland and the Northern
Territory have their own liberal parties, which have
always been part of the bourgeois coalitions at the
national level. NP is a strong interest party for the
rural population, especially in Queensland, but with an
aging and shrinking voter base, support for the party is
In the 1980s, the Labor Party's (in daily speech)
economic policies became more liberal, but as far back
as the 1990s Labor maintained a large part of its
distribution policy, which sought a society where the
state made sure everyone was involved. of jobs,
healthcare, education and more. Among other things,
health insurance and pension systems were improved in
exchange for restrained salary requirements during the
party's reign 1983–1996. The party has had leadership
problems in recent times (see Modern history). The
internal disputes are believed to have contributed to
Labor's failure to take over government power from the
bourgeois government parties in the last three
The ideological boundaries between the two power
blocks have almost become blurred over time. Both now
turn mainly to the middle class, which is no longer
faithful to any particular party but without whose
support it is not possible to win government power.
The third strongest political force is The
Greens (The Australian Greens), formed in 1992
through a merger of local green parties.
Alien Hostile One Nation (One
Nation), which has not been represented in Parliament
since 2010, re-entered the Senate in the 2016 election
with four seats and retained two of these after the 2019
The Liberal Australian Democrats
(Australian Democrats) attracted big-city voters with
peace, environmental and women issues during the 1980s
and 1990s, but have not been represented in Parliament
since 2010. The first national party for Aborigines,
Your Voice (Your Voice), was formed
before the 2004 elections but failed to get a mandate.
In 2010, an Aboriginal was elected to the House of
Representatives for the first time and in 2013 an
Aboriginal woman was elected to the Senate. At a
historic meeting with over 250 leaders from the Urians
in May 2017, the government was invited to give the
indigenous people a special representation in
Parliament. However, the proposal was rejected by the